In international relations, an executive agreement is a pact between two or more countries that is not subject to approval by the legislative branch. It is an agreement made between the executive branches of the countries involved, often used for a variety of purposes, such as trade, security, and diplomatic relations.
One example of an executive agreement is the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), also known as the Iran nuclear deal. The JCPOA was signed in 2015 by the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, and China, along with the European Union, and the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The agreement was designed to limit Iran`s ability to develop nuclear weapons in exchange for relief from economic sanctions. Under the terms of the JCPOA, Iran agreed to reduce its stockpile of enriched uranium, limit uranium enrichment to 3.67%, and provide access for international inspectors to its nuclear facilities.
In return, the other signatories agreed to lift certain economic sanctions against Iran. The agreement was signed by the executive branches of the countries involved, rather than being ratified by the legislative bodies, as it was deemed an executive agreement.
However, the JCPOA has faced criticism and challenges from some parties, particularly after the Trump administration withdrew the United States from the agreement in 2018, leading Iran to announce its own withdrawal from some of the agreement`s commitments in 2019.
Despite these challenges, the JCPOA remains an example of an executive agreement in the realm of international relations. It illustrates how executive agreements can be effective in resolving complex diplomatic issues when approved by the parties involved.